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DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download Jose Rizal Book by Zaide 2nd Ed Free in pdf format. Sponsored Ads. Shop Now. Ads by site. Gregorio F. Zaide is the author of José Rizal ( avg rating, ratings, reviews, published ), History of the Republic of the Philippines (4. Numerous biographies celebrate Rizal as “the first Filipino” (Guerrero) “the pride of the of Borneo” (, ; see Zaide and Zaide ).
In fact, he behaved in some respects as one, for instance, attending Mass in Europe at times though it is not clear whether he received the sacraments or not. This to me is sweeter than for you to become most learned, for wisdom, sometimes, is the thing that leads us to perdition. What you said about my duties as a Christian, I have the pleasure of being able to tell you that never for a moment have I stopped believing in the fundamental principles of our religion: What I do believe now, I believe through reasoning and it is because my conscience can not [sic] accept more than what is to me a mysterious thing, provided that it comes from a fact, but never to something absurd, neither to a probability.
Religion to me is the most saintly thing, most pure, most fantastic, so that it escapes from all human sophistications, and I believe that I would be remiss in my duty of being rational if I prostitute my reason and accept what is absurd.
I believe that God would not punish me if in trying to understand Him I use reason and intelligence, His most precious gifts ; and I believe that to honor Him more all I have to do is present myself to Him and make use of the best that He has given me, in the same manner that when I present myself to my parents I put on that dress that they have given me.
If sometimes I shall come to possess a little of that divine acumen that is called science, I will not hesitate to use it for the service of God, and if in my reasoning I make a mistake, I commit an error, God will not punish me. Apostol Manila: Philippine National Historical Society, See also Bonoan, pp. Instead, he focuses on one of the fundamental principles he retains from his boyhood Catholicism, the existence of God. Moreover, even as Rizal sought to emphasize their shared belief in the existence of God, his discussion about the deity actually pointed to greater differences between them.
First, by demanding to know all things through his own individual use of reason, Rizal denied Catholic understandings of the authority of the Church as teacher and the importance of tradition and revelation. Similarly, by emphasizing scientific knowledge and rejecting probability, Rizal was saying that he can only accept what can be proved by direct observation and experimentation, a stance he did not follow consistently since he would later write works on history, which must depend on probability.
Thus Rizal cannot accept what he rejects in the Noli: In line with this epistemology, Rizal elevates religion so highly that human beings cannot truly and fully understand it. In other words, God is so transcendent that He cannot be immanent. He cannot speak clearly to human beings, so revelation does not truly exist, nor, it follows, can He intervene in human affairs.
For instance, in a letter to his brother he wrote while working on the Noli, Rizal stated that Today is the feast of San Antonio Abad and donkeys, mules, horses and other animals with two or four legs went to visit the image of the Saint to be blessed. They were luxuriously adorned: I do not know what good the benedictions and indulgences would do to those little donkeys, if as they say they have no soul nor can offend nor defend God. Anyway, they say that he is the saint of the animals ; some fine day even the stones shall have one to whom they could be commended.
You have to civilize yourselves there and look for some saint for the carabaos that will liberate them from faults…38 In this passage, Rizal ridicules a Spanish religious celebration as 37 At times Rizal does in his letters seem to affirm a belief that God intervenes in the world.
At best, Rizal was ambiguous on this point. Apostol, p.
Such formulaic invocations are generally lacking from letters to his brother Paciano but are present in letters to his parents.
Apostol, pp. He does not understand the role such festivals can have for uniting a community and breaking up the drudgery of farm life. On a deeper level, while Rizal is correct that an indulgence does not do any good for someone who lacks an eternal soul, Catholics believed that blessings were useful in the here and now for the bodily health they promised.
In other words, blessing an animal was a way of making sure it stayed healthy, both for its own good but also so it can continue to help the family make a living. Thus, in the Noli, while he could sympathize with the poor, he did not understand their piety.
His simplistic Enlightenment rationalism prevented him from recognizing the alternative rationality of traditional Catholicism. This sort of belief in God provided Rizal with a moral foundation from which he could launch attacks on the immorality of the friars and the Spanish colonial system while denying their authority, as well as that of the broader Church, which was based on divine revelation.
There I found Christianity full of grandeur, divine ; Catholicism attractive, poetic, Christianity itself become poetic and beautiful, more beautiful than insipid Protestantism. On one side, Rizal held a high view of the central figure of Christianity, writing to Ferdinand Blumentritt on Christmas Eve of , two years after he finished the Noli: Whether or not Christ was born exactly on this day, I do not know ; but exact chronology is immaterial to see the joy of this night.
A great Genius was born who preached truth and love. He suffered on account of His mission, but because of His sufferings the world had improved, if not saved [sic]. How it shocks me to see people misuse His name to commit many crimes.
The anger and frustration Rizal felt boiled over in the Noli, leading him to accuse Jesus with the following words: And you, your religion created for a suffering multitude, have you forgotten your mission of consoling the oppressed in their misery, and humbling the hubris of power, and now render promises only to the rich, those who can pay? However, as noted above, it would be possible to attack the friars without criticizing such Catholic doctrines as the sacraments.
Further Travels, Continued Nationalist Activities, Execution, and Retraction Rizal returned to the Philippines in , arriving after copies of the Noli had reached the archipelago. The novel had made him famous, and he was welcomed by many Filipino supporters. The relatively liberal Governor-General of the Philippines initially decided not to make an issue of the book.
While there, he continued to engage in patriotic activities by forming organizations with other Filipinos and by writing, particularly for La Soldaridad, a Spanish-language newspaper begun in that focused on Filipino issues and received financial support from Spanish liberals.
Darker in tone than the Noli, by following the bloody revolutionary plans of the embittered Ibarra, it continued to emphasize that without reform there would be a violent and destructive rebellion. Knowing that his status as a Filipino meant that he could not attract a clientele in Europe, he moved to Hong Kong to set up a medical practice in his specialty of ophthalmology.
His family, under pressure from the colonial government, 44 For a copy of this essay, see Zaide, pp. While able to make a comfortable living, Rizal did not give up on the idea of doing something for his country. However, it was not clear what he should do. Agitating for reform had borne little fruit. Though Rizal believed violence could be legitimate, he did not think a revolution had much of a chance of success, and even if it could succeed, would cause massive suffering.
He attempted to find a third way, seeking to establish a Filipino colony in Borneo where he and his fellow colonists could experiment with developing a model community, but this plan proved to be impractical. Rizal became convinced that he had to return to the Philippines if anything was to be done for his country and did so in after writing to the Governor-General informing him that he would wait in Manila for three days before returning home should he wish to arrest him.
After arriving, he had several cordial meetings with the Governor-General, who was no friend to the friars. While in Manila, he helped found the Liga Filipina Filipino League , an organization dedication to mutual protection and to spreading reform and liberal ideas in the Philippines. The organization collapsed after that and a new secret one, the Katiputan The Association was established in its stead.
Unbeknownst to Rizal, he was elected its president. As punishment for his activities, Rizal was sent into exile to Dapitan, located in the southern Philippines.
There Rizal was given almost complete liberty. During this time, several Jesuits made a concerted effort to reconcile him with the Catholic Church. Though failing at the time to win him back, they did reacquaint him with the intellectual depth of Catholicism and an alternate understanding of rationality that could be reconciled with faith, tradition, and an authoritative teaching Church.
Rizal, believing that a revolution was impossible owing to a lack of arms and funds, refused to lend his support, instead opting to travel to Cuba, where a rebellion against Spain was raging, in order to serve as a medical doctor in the Spanish army to treat soldiers and civilians suffering there from a yellow fever epidemic, likely doing this for both humanitarian reasons and because it would show that he was willing to work with the Spanish, hopefully aiding his reform agenda.
However, during his voyage, the uprising organized by the Katipunan broke out. Thus, when he arrived in Spain, from where he was supposed to be sent to Cuba, he was arrested and sent back to the 47 A translation of letters that were part of this effort to reconcile Rizal from Spanish into English can be found in Bonoan, pp.
Bonoan also provides an excellent analysis of this debate in pages pp. He was put on trial for forming an illegal association the Liga Filipina that had promoted rebellion. Despite his truthful protests that he had not supported the revolution, that the Liga Filipina was not a revolutionary organization, and that he had been willing to issue an edict calling for the revolutionaries to surrender, as well as the able defense of a Spanish army officer who served as his lawyer, Rizal was found guilty on December 26, and sentenced to be shot on December 30 of that year.
As Rizal waited for execution members of the Society of Jesus again made a concerted effort to win him back to the Catholic faith. According to the Jesuit accounts of events, the only ones that are extant, Rizal asked to receive the sacrament of confession, but refused to issue a public retraction of his anti-Catholic statements or make a statement of Catholic belief.
Frustrated, one priest told Rizal that he would go to hell after he died if he did not recant and receive confession. According to Jesuit sources, Rizal was unnerved by this and explained that he could not recant if he were not convinced, otherwise he would be a hypocrite. The priest then told Rizal he needed to pray 48 This paper is following this narrative as describe in Guerrero, pp. Perhaps it had also brought to mind the faith discussed in The Imitation of Christ he had with him the copy he had been given while in exile several years previously and the beauty he had seen through his poetry and the faith itself.
In any case, a few hours later Rizal was ready to issue a retraction.
He was presented with two written formulas. He rejected the first as too long and too unlike him, and then revised the second so that it read thusly: I declare myself a Catholic, and in this religion in which I was born and educated I wish to live and die.
I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications, and conduct has been contrary to my condition as a son of the Church. I believe and profess whatever she teaches, and submit myself to whatever she commands. I abhor Masonry as the enemy that it is of the Church and as a society prohibited by the same Church.
The diocesan prelate, as the superior ecclesiastical authority, can make public this my spontaneous declaration to repair the scandal that my actions may have caused, and so that God and men may forgive me. Much ink has been spilled on this debate, 49 Guerrero, pp. The words used in the formula above do not retract the underlying anti-friar message of the Noli or directly affirm loyalty to Spain. The political critique, including the attacks on clerical abuses and corruption, was not explicitly retracted in this document, rather, only the criticism of essential Catholic doctrine, such as Holy Communion and confession, was repudiated.
In other words, the retraction was religious, not political. If forged, it likely would have been both.
Jose Rizal Book by Zaide 2nd Ed
There still remains the problem of explaining why Rizal changed his mind. Why would he give up the Enlightenment rationalism that he had accepted for so long?
For one thing, there were tensions within his Enlightenment deism, particularly the problem of a good God who does not intervene, a cause of frustration for Rizal. Of central importance was the idea of faith as a gift. Rizal had understood his reason as a gift that could be used to understand God, so the argument that faith was also a gift might have, building upon the pietistic understanding of Catholicism found in The Imitation of 50 Guerrero argues for its authenticity, pp.
Bookmark, Coates argues against it pp. Rizal might also have thought of his mentor Blumentritt, a scholar who was also a Catholic. It must be remembered that Rizal was not only a scientist, but a gifted writer, poet, and novelist.
There are scenes in the Noli, particularly when he was describing nature, which are movingly beautiful. Politics, corruption, insults, and the abuses of the friars had driven him away from the Catholic Church, faith in progress and liberalism led him to criticize it, and poetry and prayer brought him back to it. In terms of class, An came from a similar background: And while An was a convert to Catholicism rather than being born into the faith like Rizal was, he came to believe deeply in it, spending a significant portion of his autobiography describing his faith.
Of particular interest for our purposes is that An appealed to rational arguments to prove the existence of God, while also accepting doctrines found only in revelation. Thus, in terms of epistemology, An recognized the importance of his own rationality and individual judgment, which could be utilized to show that God existed, and the importance of the authority of the Catholic Church, showing that he saw no conflict between reason and revelation.
It also meant that conflict with individual members of the clergy, such as when Father Joseph Wilhelm, the man who baptized him, struck him for questioning his authority, did not lead An to criticize the Catholic Church.
In fact, Fr. Wilhelm had been an important companion to An, a window to the outside world whom An deeply admired. For instance, both men valued education as a means to help their respective countries, with An helping to establish a couple of schools.
Moreover, during this time abroad, Rizal made contacts with Spanish liberals who were sympathetic to Filipino desires for modern reform and greater autonomy. In contrast, An lacked such international support. For example, when An presented the idea of building a Catholic university in Korea to Bishop Gustave Mutel, rather than explaining that such an institution was beyond the resources of the Korean Catholic Church and offering to help educate An abroad, he was told that such an education would make Catholics indifferent to their faith.
An was so angered by this response that he gave up learning French. If An was so devout and so close to the Church, why then did he choose to engage in violent means to resist Japanese imperialism while Rizal continued to follow peaceful ones, even when revolution in Cuba increased the chances for a successful one in the Philippines?
One reason is their differing personal characteristics. Rizal had not fought in any military campaigns. However, An, had been enamored with the Chinese general Xiongnu from the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms, had routinely snuck away from his studies to roam the countryside with hunters and became a skilled marksman in the process, and led men into battle against the Tonghak, and was therefore well suited to the life of a soldier.
Rizal was afraid of the loss of life that would be caused in a rebellion and the consequent social disorder. While not an ideal government, the Spanish colonial state in the Philippines did a reasonably good job of maintaining order, a prerequisite of the progress and liberty Rizal desired, and there then existed no viable alternative to it.
In contrast, imperialistic encroachment on Korean sovereignty was causing social disorder and the deaths of many, as An emphasized in his writings. Moreover, An did not have ready access to international support like Rizal did, and therefore could not place so much trust in it. Duncan, and Kim Do-hyung, eds. Jimoondang, In addition to his difficulties with Wilhelm, An was refused communion by a Catholic priest while he was on his way to join the righteous army.
At the same time, it is important to stress that the Catholic Church in Korea, unlike that in the Philippines at this time, was not a powerful institution that suffered problems with corruption.
Instead, the Catholic Church in Korea was a small, poor community, struggling to overcome the legacy of persecution.
In a society in which order was breaking down, it looked to the increasingly powerful Japanese colonial government for protection. And so, whatever the differences in their lives, thought, and means to overcome colonialism, An and Rizal both died as Catholics, though conflicted ones.
Both were educated men from the margins of power, who were open to new, modern ideas, which they sought to spread through education as part of their struggle against colonialism. However, owing in part to the variegated situations they faced, they differed in their use of violence to accomplish their goals and in their relationship to the Catholic Church. From a nationalist perspective, there is a tinge of sadness to their stories as both men were executed before they could see their countries become fully independent, which in both cases occurred decades after their deaths.
Moreover, there is a tragic pathos to their faith lives and their relationship with the Catholic Church. In both cases, the Church, dominated by the interests of the West, which included colonialism, was unable to see to the legitimate needs of its children.
Its opposition to their search for national liberation and reform meant that neither man could use his considerable talents and the rich intellectual tradition of the Church to challenge the evils present in the world, which would have allowed them to do much good.
What then can be learned from this? First, it must be noted that following World War One, the Vatican understood that colonialism and Western dominance would not last forever and that action had to be taken to make sure that national churches outside of the West could stand on their own when national liberation finally did occur.
The Vatican thus became an ally of indigenous Catholics who wanted more autonomy in their faith life and for the Catholic Church in their country to work actively to help heal the social ills they faced, as well as the foreign missionaries who supported them.
And yet, despite these criticisms, though their lives were cut short tragically, the fact that both An and Rizal died as Catholics is both a testament to their own faith, and the power of the faith itself, which drew them to the Church despite the errors of its servants. English Sources Anderson, Benedict.
The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia, and the World. Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination. The Fine Print of Philippine History. Makati, Metro Manila: Paul Publications, Blanco, John D. Frontier Constitutions: Bonoan, Raul J. The Rizal-Pastells Correspondence. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Constantino, Renato. A History of the Philippines: New York: Monthly Review Press, Philippines Nationalist and Martyr. Hong Kong: Daughton, J. An Empire Divided: Deats, Richard L.
Nationalism and Christianity in the Philippines.
Southern Methodist University Press, Guerrero, Leon Ma. The First Filipino: National Historical Commission, Hagimoto, Koichi. Between Empires: Palgrave Macmillan, Hessel, Eugene. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, Rizal life and works chapter 6.
Infidelity of leonor rivera Jose rizal book by zaide 2nd edition. Chapter 9 rizal s grand tour of europe with maximo viola The life,works, writingsof jose rizal 2. Free online download a mind at a time pdb by mel levine. Jose rizal life, works, and writings 2.
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José Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist, and National Hero
Rizal life works writings summary 1 document. Rizal life works writings summary 1. The life of jose rizal philippine patriot, by austin craig free book download. The life,works, writingsof jose rizal. Jose rizal life works and writings by gregorio zaide pdf.Share on Facebook. Ophthalmic surgeon in hongkong. What is needed, above all, is a dialectical grasp of the complex relations between the heterogeneous social classes and their varying political consciousness—peasantry, workers, petty-bourgeois ilustrado, artisans, etc.
The Customs are excessively strict. This woman had hallucinations of being a superior Castillan, and, although a native herself, she looked down on her own people as inferior beings. Download pdf. Coates argues against it pp. All these contradictions are merged together in that love, his dreamlike and poetic love for his adored country, the beloved region of the sun, pearl of the Orient, his lost Eden. Filipinos are presented as either ineffectual yes-men or as proponents of reforms that are ultimately thwarted.
Austin Coates, Rizal:
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