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Society And Environment Book

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Ans: International trade plays a very important role in economic development since it allows a country to escape from its own limitations of natural and human resources and concentrates its efforts in the areas in which it has a genuine advantage.

If there were no international trades, a developing country would have to grow on all fronts simultaneously.

In that case, its growth could be seriously impaired by the limitations of natural resources and acquired human skills in many areas. A country bent on growing through an industrialization policy may benefit if it can concentrate at first on light manufacturing and exporting consumer goods in return for capital goods made by heavy industries in more developed countries. In this way, a developing country can gain many of the benefits of more efficient production that it could not hope to match for a long time to come.

Among the other advantages of specialization that international trade makes possible are the opportunities to take advantage of the economy of scale by producing far more goods than would be required to meet the domestic demand in a state of self-sufficiency. A further advantage that may be significant for a developing country is often called the advantage of "learning by doing".

On the other hand, economic growth with a heavy dependence on the foreign trade often brings in the serious problem of the balance of payments in a world of fixed exchange rates.

In a developing country, capital goods are often one of the main limitations to growth. In a closed economy, the problem of scarce capital appears as a resource problem since there are not enough resources to produce capital goods at a rate as fast as desired.

In an open economy the same problem appears as a foreign exchange problem since there is not enough foreign exchange to download all the imported capital goods that are desired for faster economic growth. In both cases, the problem is the same, i.

One way is to make the capital goods at home; the other way is to make consumer goods at home and then sell them abroad in exchange for capital goods. A second problem in a developing country is related to the import of consumer goods, if the country's economy is an open one.

As the country's productivity rises, disposable income and the standard of living also rise. In many developing countries, the goods produced at home are mainly in the necessity class with low margins of profit, whereas imported goods tend to have a higher profit margin. In such a situation, the rise in income that accompanies economic growth brings with it a shift in the pattern of consumer demand, with a larger proportion of consumers opting for the download of imported goods.

Unless something happens to offset this shift in consumer demand, economic growth can be accompanied by an increasingly severe problem of the balance of payments.

This problem can be offset in two ways. The first way is for the country to develop export commodities with rapidly expanding demand for them in foreign countries.

In this case, the exports can expand rapidly to match the increasing imports. A second way is for its domestic growth to take place partly in the sec-called "import-substitute" industries.

Growth of industries that compete with Imports can keep the rapidly expanding demand for luxury goods from being translated into an equally rapidly expanding demand for their imports. Ans : Economic development is hardly possible without social change, and science, engineering and technology are the most important factors for changing a traditional society into a modern and developed one.

Engineering is the I applied science and technology is the applied engineering.

This clearly shows that social, economic and scientific factors for development are highly interrelated. Technology, arising from scientific research followed by technological development, has been a prime mover m creating the kind of world in which we live today. From the shaping of the first stone tools, the discovery of the wheel, the lever and the plough and learning the use of fire, man has assiduously shaped science to serve his material needs.

Science, therefore, is not a new phenomenon! What is different today is that the discover of natural laws through scientific research has given a new dimension to technology. As a result, technology now has such a massive impart on our lives that it offers on the one hand an almost infinite promise to relieve poverty and provide healthy conditions of life, but on the other hand it also threatens our pattern of life, the global ecology and even the Survival of the human race.

Ans: In order to appreciate properly the rationale and relevance of adopting science and technology for development, it is necessary to draw a distinction between the two terms "science" and "technology". As explained earlier, science and technology are closely related and highly interdependent. Policy for them, however, has to be distinct. Science is the result of man's restless quest to comprehend the phenomena of nature. By its very nature, development of science requires a long-term planning.

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No schedule of time can be fixed in advance for achieving a scientific breakthrough. Technology, on the other hand, is product or process specific and not universal. Unlike science, technologies are not widely publicized and generally, not open to outsiders. The inventor guards the secrets of his technological breakthrough by getting a patent on it and thus preventing others from using the process developed by him.

The possession of the patent on a technological development gives monopoly rights to the patent holder to derive commercial benefits from it for a fixed period. Technology is an essential input in all decisions relating to production in all sectors of the economy.

As a result, technology is amenable to time-bound programs, policies, strategies and planning on a continuing basis. All plans contain some specific projects with some technological contents in them.

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Projects launched for national development have to be supported by appropriate technological inputs that would improve productivity of both men and materials. In the process of modernization, a country has to assimilate its own indigenous technology as well as the relevant imported technology.

India has been doing so ever since it launched its ambitious five-year Plans. The role which relevant technology can play in improving productivity can be clearly seen from the experience of Punjab.

Subsistence agriculture in Punjab was transformed into a commercial one, particularly after the Green Revolution in the s, through the application of technology. Ans : If the experience of the industrialized countries has been that science and technology have been ma or instruments for their economic development, one would assume that the same should be true for developing countries too.

Certainly, great advances have been made in developing countries by the direct transfer of technology from advanced countries. For example, communications now form a worldwide network; certain devastating diseases like malaria, smallpox and tuberculosis have been controlled; and agriculture in the third world countries has made rapid progress by the use of fertilizers and high-yielding varieties of seeds.

The relative failure of the process of technology transfer is due to many causes, in addition to the lack of indigenous scientific and technological capacity. The profit motive of the donors of technology does not always harmonize with the basic needs of the receivers.

Other causes of the failure of technology transfer lie in the social and political factors in the recipient nations.

Another difficulty is the scarcity of capital. Also, some technologies are energy-intensive. In most Third World countries, unemployment and underemployment are widespread and, therefore, capital-intensive technologies are not suitable to them. Another obstacle to successful transfer of technology is the insufficient local availability of the necessary technical and managerial skills. At present, the main political debate with regard to the use of science and technology for development is concentrated on the transfer process itself, and on the improvement in the access of advanced technology to the developing countries.

The arguments used in the debate are highly politicized and centre around the effectiveness and motivation of the multinational corporations MNCs as the main agents of technology transfer. The MNCs are needed by the developing countries, but they are not encouraged. It is necessary that the multinationals and the developing countries come to terms.

The multinational corporations will have to be encouraged to establish lasting relationship with the host country. The multinationals, as a matter of self-interest, will have to learn to balance the need for next year's profits with their long-term survival in the host country.

Ans: Application of science and technology for rural development has acquired a special significance in India 's development programs. Rural people occupy the pivotal position in the context of anti-poverty programs. It has been well recognized that the physical resources alone are not the only constraint for development. Even if physical resources are available, their inefficient-utilization can result in under-development.

Thus, science and technology assume a greater significance in the context of rural development since they can increase the efficiency of resource utilization. The areas of economy, which can be substantially influenced through the adoption of science and technology, can be grouped under production and development.

Production efficiency in respect of the rural people relates to the following two aspects: 1 Increasing efficiency of resource use for productive enterprise taken up by the rural people, either individually or uncooperative groups. Developments in science and technology can be fruitfully utilized for rural development through an improvement in the production efficiency of investment resources as well as that of the rural labor force, conservation of resources used by them and improvement in their health and living conditions.

A great deal of effort has gone into the application of science and technology for rural development, but it has not yet produced desired results. While some technologies appropriate for rural development have been developed, their combined package innovation, adoption, utilization, human resources, raw materials and marketing has not made substantial change in the productivity, income and living condition of the rural people in general.

What are its characteristics? Ans: Defination of planning given by Prof. According to him, "Economic planning is the making of ma or economic decisions - what and how much is to be produced; how, when and where it is to be produced and to whom it is to be allocated - by the conscious decision of a comprehensive survey of the system as a whole".

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Loucks defines planning as "the shaping of all economic activities into group-defined spheres of action, which are rationally mapped out and fitted, as parts of a mosaic, into a coordinated whole, for the purpose of achieving certain nationally conceived and socially comprehensive goals.

There are three important characteristics of planning. In the first place, there is a definite planning authority, whether it be the government or another body specially constituted like the Planning Commission in India. This planning authority is entrusted with the task of surveying the resource of the country, fixing up targets and laying down the methods for reaching these targets.

If the government itself is the planning body, it also executes the plan thus formulated.

It is not necessary that the planning authority should have supreme or dictatorial powers. It may be dictatorial, or it may work subject to the democratic control of a parliament as in India. It may even delegate some of its powers to other agencies, but the plans of all such agencies taken together must fit into the common pattern laid down by the planning authority.

The second characteristic of planning is that the decisions are based on a survey of the economy as a whole. The planning authority acquires comprehensive knowledge of all resources that the economy possesses.

Moreover, it keeps in view the needs and requirements of the economy as a whole, and not merely of some particular sectors of it, when it allocates the resources for various uses.

In third place, the planning authority deliberately takes decisions with regard to the use to which various resources in the economy are put in. The economic life of the country concerned is not left to mere chance, or to the working of free competition. Planning implies the conscious and deliberate choice of economic priorities by the planning authority. Anunplanned economy is characterized by the absence of these three characteristics.

In an unplanned society, each individual is free, within such legal limits as may be laid down by the state, to make use of the resources at his command in the manner he thinks best.

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Naturally, he does not take a comprehensive view of the economy as a whole. He has, at his command, only a part of the total resources of the community. Ans : The objectives of planning, however, are not the same for all countries, nor are they the same for any country at all times.

What precisely arc the objectives of planning depend on the stage of economic development of the country concerned, the socio-economic conditions prevalent there at the time of planning, and the requirements for a particular situation.

Keeping the broad objective of accelerating economic growth and of raising the standard of living of the people, the major objectives may be listed as follows: 1 Achieving full employment. It may be noted, however, that these objectives are interrelated and complementary, and not mutually exclusive of one another. Sustainable Technology Part 2: Sustainable Technology 4. Green Technology 5.


The Nuclear Alternative 6. Renewable Energy 7. Renewables Worldwide 8. Getting Started: Institutional Obstacles Keeping Going: Deployment Problems Sustainable Development The Global Perspective Sustainable Future Conclusions: The Way Ahead? Reviews 'Although this is primarily a book on technology, it is written in a most accessible way It is a most interesting contribution to the ongoing and upcoming energy debates on society, economics, politics and the environment.

Therefore it is a must for all those involved in this debate.What actions or practices do the concepts inspire? Teams of scientists from Russia and China focus on the implications of the transition from plan to market economy, illuminating both the very different nature of the forest sector in the two countries and the different transition paths that they have adopted.

Global case-studies are used throughout to ground the debates and illustrate the interaction between technological and social aspects. Secondly, it compels increasing use of inanimate sources of energy in contrast to the use of human or animal energy in traditional societies.

According to Colin Clark , who was one of the pioneers in the studies of under-developed economies, "economic development consists in the progressive enlargement of tertiary occupations in the economy".

Considering these conceptualizations are currently shaping responses to environmental crises in fundamental ways, critical reflections on concepts such as the Anthropocene, metabolism, risk, resilience, environmental governance, environmental justice and others, are well-warranted. Apart from community development, education has very rapidly expanded in India since independence and new universities and colleges have mushroomed under local pressure.

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